The world we live in today is filled with so much mental stress. Little wonder people and even children are being diagnosed with different mental disorders. One such disorder is ADHD Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.
Meaning of ADHD
ADHD, an acronym for Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. It is mostly diagnosed in childhood and can move on to adulthood.
It is a brain disorder that affects how you pay attention and control your behaviour. It is more likely to affect boys more than girls, and it is usually noticed in the early school years of a child.
Types of ADHD
There are three types of ADHD, they are:
- Inattentive ADHD: This is characterised by an inability to pay attention to details, the inability to organise or finish a task, the inability to follow instructions or conversations, the inability to stay focused or forgetting details of daily routines. And they also tend to dream a lot.
- Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD: This is characterised by fidgeting, talking a lot, finding it hard to sit still, having trouble waiting for their turn, interrupting others, blurting out answers and restlessness.
- Combined ADHD: As the name implies, it is a combination of Inattentive ADHD and Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD. The person diagnosed with this has an equal display of symptoms of both Inattentive ADHD and Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD.
Causes of ADHD
Things that can lead to ADHD may include:
- Genes—it is hereditary.
- Imbalanced brain chemicals.
- Brain changes.
Other risk factors include:
- Poor nutrition during pregnancy.
- Infections during pregnancy.
- Smoking, drinking and substance abuse during pregnancy.
- Premature birth.
- Toxins such as lead.
- Brain injury or a brain disorder.
- Low-income earning family background.
- Nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of ADHD
- Very short attention span.
- Inability to sit still.
- Fidgets a lot.
- Talks excessively.
- Make careless mistakes.
- Take unnecessary risks.
- Has trouble waiting for their turn.
- Interrupts others.
- Can’t get along with people.
- Loses things.
- Low self-esteem.
- Problems at work.
- Trouble controlling anger.
- Mood swings.
- Trouble concentrating when reading.
- Easily frustrated.
ADHD has no cure but if a child or an adult is diagnosed with ADHD, it can be managed. The safest way to manage ADHD is through therapy. Therapy focuses on changing behavioural patterns. It involves:
- Special education: Structure and routine go a long way in helping children with ADHD.
- Behaviour modification: This involves replacing bad behaviours with good ones. By making simple and clear rules that they can understand, and when they lose control have them face consequences that you have set up.
- Psychotherapy (counselling): This helps those diagnosed with ADHD learn better ways to handle their emotions and frustrations. This helps in improving their self-esteem.
- Social skills training: Behaviours such as taking turns and sharing are taught to children with ADHD.
Other ways of managing ADHD are:
- Medical devices.
- Changing lifestyles.
- Healthy diet.
- Dietary supplements with Omega-3.
- ADHD Support Groups.
- Education and ADHD- learning for parents, to learn skills that can help in managing ADHD in children.
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Deficiency (ADHD) is a disorder that can seriously disrupt daily activities. For children, it affects their ability to learn and perform well in school; while for adults, it adversely affects their work life, relationships and daily activities.
ADHD cannot be cured, but early diagnosis will help in managing the symptoms so that regular activities and relationships do not suffer due to this disorder.